Maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and hybrids of serbian selection with high efficiency of photosynthesis, rich in pigment content and increased nutritive value
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This paper presents results of several different studies that confirm the hypothesis that maize inbred lines rich in proteins and with exceptional nutritive values can be bred. This is also supported by a medicinal standpoint of programmed need for maize-based food and feed. With such an experimental approach, the maize inbred lines ZPPL 146 and ZPPL 159 and hybrids derived from them (ZP 633, ZP 735 and ZP 737) rich in proteins have been systematically tested. Based on concrete results the following we can be conclude as follows. Selected maize inbred lines ZPPL 146 and ZPPL 159, rich in carotenoids, yellow pigments, also have significant amounts of other relevant bioactive compounds. Observed inbred lines have erect top leaves and are classified into a group of maize inbreds with significant properties of the photosynthesis model, are resistant to high temperatures and tolerant to drought. Spectral bands pointing to conformational characteristics of molecules of carotenoids but also o...f other compounds (phosphates, glutens and amides III) were established by the resonance Raman spectroscopy method applied to the leaf of the maize inbred line ZPLL 146. Physiological, biochemical and biophysical traits of elite maize inbred lines and their hybrids were observed in this study with a special emphasis on their efficiency of photosynthesis, productivity and suitability for broad use of nutrient values of grain and other essential biogenic matters, first of all pigments that express antioxidative properties. Relevant traits, properties and parameters of observed maize inbred lines that can be used in the process of selection are presented. These prestigious maize inbred lines were used to develop high-yielding and high-quality maize hybrids (ZP 633, ZP 735 and ZP 737) that are recognisable for their quality in human nutrition (children and the elderly), that are confirmed by medical observations related to their use in food and feed. Relevant agronomic and morphological traits of maize hybrids are presented. Moreover, results on grain structure and yields obtained in the regions of south-eastern Europe are also displayed.