Characterization of Proteins from Grain of Different Bread and Durum Wheat Genotypes
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The classical Osborne wheat protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins), as well as several proteins from each of the four subunits of gliadin using SDS-PAGE analyses, were determined in the grain of five bread (T. aestivum L.) and five durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) genotypes. In addition, content of tryptophan and wet gluten were analyzed. Gliadins and glutenins comprise from 58.17% to 65.27% and 56.25% to 64.48% of total proteins and as such account for both quantity and quality of the bread and durum wheat grain proteins, respectively. The ratio of gliadin/total glutenin varied from 0.49 to 1.01 and 0.57 to 1.06 among the bread and durum genotypes, respectively. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, bread wheat genotypes had a higher concentration of alpha + beta + gamma-subunits of gliadin (on average 61.54% of extractable proteins) than durum wheat (on average 55.32% of extractable proteins). However, low concentration of omega-subunit was found in both bread (0.50% ...to 2.53% of extractable proteins) and durum (3.65% to 6.99% of extractable proteins) wheat genotypes. On average, durum wheat contained significantly higher amounts of tryptophan and wet gluten (0.163% dry weight (d.w.) and 26.96% d.w., respectively) than bread wheat (0.147% d.w. and 24.18% d.w., respectively).
Keywords:bread wheat / durum wheat / protein fractions and subunits / tryptophan / wet gluten
Source:International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2011, 12, 9, 5878-5894
- Mdpi Ag, Basel