Effect of Micronisation on the Composition and Properties of the Flour from White, Yellow and Red Maize
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The process of micronisation, a short time high temperature process that utilizes electromagnetic radiation in the infrared region to rapidly heat materials, is often used to improve storage stability of whole grain flour. In this work the consequences of such temperature treatment on the quality and solubility of proteins, viscosity, content of total phenolics, tocopherols, beta-carotene, as well as the antioxidant properties of maize (Zen mays L.) flour are presented. For these studies three maize hybrids were used: the semi-flint hybrid ZP 633 with pronounced yellow kernels, ZP Rumenka with dark red pericarp and yellow endosperm, and ZP 551b hybrid which is characterized by white kernels. The process of micronisation did not change the content of crude protein, the amount of albumin, globulin and zein were decreased, while glutelin remained the same or increased after micronisation. As a consequence of thermal effect on maize protein, tryptophan content was significantly decreased. ...Micronisation had a significant effect on the pasting properties of the selected maize flour. Viscosity of all micronised flour samples increased constantly, but without reaching a peak during heating of the slurry to 95 degrees C. At 95 degrees C it was slightly higher, but final viscosity at 50 degrees C was significantly lower. The micronisation treatment decreased the content of bioactive compounds (tocopherols, beta-carotene) naturally present in the raw grains. The whole grain flour from micronised grain, with modified nutritional and technological characteristics, represents a good raw material for production of gluten-free products.
Keywords:antioxidants / maize flour / micronisation / protein solubility / viscosity
Source:Food Technology and Biotechnology, 2010, 48, 2, 198-206
- Faculty Food Technology Biotechnology, Zagreb